Increasing student participation in learning and eliminating exclusion from and within the educational system are two ways that inclusive education seeks to address and meet the unique needs of all children, according to UNESCO (Nguyet and Ha 2010). The process of expanding the presence, involvement, and achievement of all students is known as inclusive education (Booth and Ainscow 2002). Children with special educational needs are mainstreamed into conventional learning environments so they can study alongside peers without impairments. According to inclusive education, children with special educational needs must attend the same mainstream schools as children without disabilities. Children with and without special needs benefit from social and intellectual learning when children with special needs are included in mainstream classrooms (Farrell 2000).
Exclusion doesn’t just apply to the millions of kids whose access to education is limited or to those who have special needs. Additionally, it occurs every day to students who are separated or subjected to discrimination in schools because of their socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, gender, sexual orientations, or other unique traits or abilities. The conditions for effectively learning the skills that will enable them to succeed in business and life will not be there if policies, materials, and teaching methods are not adjusted to the variety of the pupils.
Diversity and the individual contributions that every student makes to the classroom are valued in inclusive education. Every youngster should feel secure and a part of the community in an environment that is really inclusive. Setting learning objectives and participating in decisions that have an impact on them are both done by students and their parents. Additionally, school personnel are equipped with the necessary skills, resources, flexibility, and support to care for all students.
It is crucial to comprehend the practices of inclusion in schools for smooth practice. Given below are the practices that educational institutions must follow.
A student who has been identified as having “special educational needs” or a person with a disability of any age is placed in a regular school setting with some modifications and resources under the terms of integrated education. However, there is a presumption that people with impairments and/or “special educational needs” must fit into the school’s pre-existing structures, attitudes, and unchanged environment.
The technique of educating students in a separate environment and in a way that meets their peculiarities and needs through individualized instruction is known as special education. This method should ideally include personally planned and meticulously observed arrangements of teaching techniques, customized tools and resources, collaborative learning, parent involvement, and accessible environments.
Placing kids who require special education assistance in mainstream settings is a practice known as mainstreaming. Depending on their abilities, they will attend a conventional classroom at certain times. When mainstreaming, certain modifications in the classroom are necessary. These are:
- Students who are mainstreamed frequently need help and support to keep up with the expectations of a general education classroom. For instance, a student with hearing loss might need an artificial enhancing device to help him or her engage with peers in the classroom, while a student with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder would need a desk that is incorporated into or attached to a wheelchair or unique seating.
- Some of these students may need modifications on assignments or tests.
Inclusive education is a modern educational approach whose main objective is to provide equal access to allstudents without their structural hierarchy coming into focus. This approach favors not only students who are differently abled but also all cases of marginalization.